Which countries are members of the EU and when did they become members?
The EU currently consists of the twenty-eight Member States.
||Year they became a member
|Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
|Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom
|Spain and Portugal
|Austria, Finland and Sweden
|The Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia
|Bulgaria and Romania
Accession negotiations with Turkey were opened in October 2005, with Iceland in 2010 and with Montenegro in 2012. Furthermore, Macedonia (FYROM) and Serbia have applied for membership.
The forgotten enlargement
When East and West Germany were reunited with effect from 3 October 1990, the former East Germany became part of the EC since West Germany was already a Member State of the EC. This is also referred to as the ‘forgotten enlargement’, since in effect it brought around 20 million new citizens into the EU.